The International Office for Human Rights Action on Colombia

Assessment of the implementation of point 5 of the Peace Agreement – Agreement on victims of the conflict

The victims of the armed conflict are at the heart of the Peace Agreement signed between the Colombian government and the former FARC-EP. Their active participation in the transitional justice process is indispensable for achieving truth, justice and reparation. That is why the Agreement includes the creation of a Comprehensive System to guarantee their rights to Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition (acronym SIVJRNR in Spanish). The implementation of the provisions of this point requires a high level of commitment from all parties; namely the state authorities, those who participated in the conflict and civil society (Kroc, 2021: 130). The institutions that make up this System have demonstrated their commitment to the victims to achieve the provisions established in the Peace Agreement, despite the lack of recognition of their legitimacy and constant attacks by the Colombian government. This situation represents a challenge for the implementation of the medium- and long-term structural measures provided for in the Agreement.

Assessment of the implementation of point 4 of the Peace Agreement- Voluntary substitution of illicit crops/Solution to the illicit Drug Problem

The Peace Agreement has mechanisms aimed at structurally solving the problem of the production and trafficking of narcotics. The aim is to intervene in the different levels of the drug trafficking chain to comprehensively address this phenomenon (Kroc, 2021: 115). The provisions in point 4 of the Agreement are envisioned as long-term programs, requiring strong political commitment and guarantees of a comprehensive State presence in the regions. So far, progress related to this point of the Agreement has been minimal, which has prevented real changes in Colombian regions.

Assessment of the implementation of point 3 of the Peace Agreement – End of the Conflict

Point 3 of the Peace Agreement aims to create the necessary conditions to put an end to the armed conflict between the Colombian National Government and the now dismantled FARC-EP. For this, structural measures are necessary, such as the laying down of arms, guarantees for the reincorporation of former combatants, and an agreement on guarantees for security and the fight against criminal organisations and behaviours. The first measures have been almost entirely implemented, while the others, composed of medium- and long-term regulatory provisions, still need to be implemented (Kroc, 2021: 18 and 97).

Assessment of the implementation of point 2 of the Peace Agreement – Political participation

Point 2 of the Peace Agreement aims to modernize and strengthen democracy through mechanisms and measures that guarantee political participation for sectors that are currently underrepresented. Structural reforms are provided for, including guarantees of citizen participation, political-electoral reform, a reform of participatory and democratic planning, and the Special Transitional Peace Constituencies (Kroc, 2021: 18). The implementation of point 2 includes regulatory reforms and the strengthening of institutional and social capacities (Kroc, 2021:  17, 82).